is an American, who emigrated from New York to Estonia with her husband and children in 2001. She is senior research fellow in philosophy at the University of Tartu and received her doctorate from the New School for Social Research. She is editor of The Ashgate Research Companion to Memory Studies (2014) and author of Memory and Representation in Contemporary Europe (2012) and Ambiguous Memory: the Nazi Past and German National Identity (2001). Currently, she writing about the political philosophy of Hannah Arendt. “Memory is a re-presentation of past experience. One can neither recall everything nor re-live something that happened in the past. Memory, by its very nature is fragmentary, episodic, unpredictable, and yet full of meaning for the one who remembers. One could say that it is the very impermanence of memory that seems to defy representation. Whether expressed in historical documents, novels, monuments, poetry or film – there is an explicit attempt to catch meaningful traces of the past for future generations. The act of memory recalls and interprets the past in both its positive and negative aspects – as tradition and traumatic burden. Regardless of whether memories of the past are written, sculpted or captured on film – as representations, they have a way of taking on a life of their own”.