at the age of 16 he moved to Leningrad from his native Kharkov. After being expelled from the Military Artillery Academy he went on to study philology and became a guide at the Imperial Palace in Pavlovsk. Following the August 1968 protest he spent several years in a closed psychiatric institution, where he was administered powerful psychiatric drugs. He went on several hunger strikes and tried to protect his fellow inmates from beatings. Following his release in 1973 he emigrated, via Israel, to the UK, where he founded CAPA – Campaign Against Psychiatric Abuses for Political Purposes. Since 1978 he has lived in France.